Premi Nobel per la Chimica


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Premi Nobel per la Chimica

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Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff 1901
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (The Netherlands, 30.8.1852 - 1.3.1911)
Germany, Berlin University,
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions". Scoperta delle leggi della dinamica chimica e della pressione osmotica nelle soluzioni.
Hermann Emil Fischer 1902
Hermann Emil Fischer (Germany, 9.10.1852 - 15.7.1919)
Germany, Berlin University,
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses". Studi nella sintesi di carboidrati e purine.
Svante August Arrhenius 1903
Svante August Arrhenius (Sweden, 19.2.1859 - 2.10.1927)
Sweden, Stockholm University,
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation". Teoria della dissociazione elettrolitica.
Sir William Ramsay 1904
Sir William Ramsay (Great Britain, 2.10.1852 - 23.7.1916)
Great Britain, London University,
"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system". Studi sui gas nobili.
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer 1905
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (Germany, 31.10.1835 - 20.8.1917)
Germany, Munich University,
"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds". Studi sui composti aromatici.
Henri Moissan 1906
Henri Moissan (France, 28.9.1852 - 20.2.1907)
France, Sorbonne University, Paris,
"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him". Studi sul fluoro.
Eduard Buchner 1907
Eduard Buchner (Germany, 20.5.1860 - 13.8.1917)
Germany, Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule, (Agricultural College), Berlin,
"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cellfree fermentation". Studi sulla fermentazione.
Sir Ernest Rutherford 1908
Sir Ernest Rutherford (Nelson, New Zealand, 30.8.1871 - 19.10.1937)
Great Britain, Victoria University, Manchester,
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances". Studi sugli elementi radioattivi e sul decadimento nucleare.
Wilhelm Ostwald 1909
Wilhelm Ostwald (Riga, then Russia, 2.9.1853 - 4.4.1932)
Germany, Leipzig University,
"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction". Studi sugli equilibri chimici e sui catalizzatori.
Otto Wallach 1910
Otto Wallach (Germany, 27.3.1847 - 26.2.1931)
Germany, Goettingen University,
"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds". Studi sui composti aliciclici.
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska 1911
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska (Warsaw, Poland, 7.11.1867 - 4.7.1934)
France, Sorbonne University, Paris,
"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element". Scoperta del radio e del polonio.
Victor Grignard 1912
The Prize was divided equally between:
Victor Grignard (France, 16.5.1871 - 13.12.1935)
France, Nancy University,
"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"; Scoperta dei "Reattivi di Grigard" e studi nella chimica degli eteri.ed anche...
Paul Sabatier 1912 Paul Sabatier (France, 5.11.1854 - 14.8.1941)
France, Toulouse University,
"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years".Idrogenazione di composti organici in presenza di metalli finemente suddivisi.
Alfred Werner 1913
Alfred Werner (Mulhouse, Alsace, then Germany, 12.12.1866 - 15.11.1919)
Switzerland, Zürich University,
"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry". Studi sul legame chimico in molecole inorganiche.
Theodore William Richards 1914
Theodore William Richards (USA, 31.1.1868 - 2.4.1928)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements". Determinazione dei pesi atomici.
Richard Martin Willstätter 1915
Richard Martin Willstätter (Germany, 13.8.1872 - 3.8.1942)
Germany, Munich University,
"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll". Studi sulla clorofilla e sugli altri pigmenti vegetali.
* 1916
The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section Non assegnato
* 1917
The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section Non assegnato
Fritz Haber 1918
Fritz Haber (Germany, 9.12.1868 - 29.1.1934)
Germany, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Fritz-Haber-Institut) für physikalische Chemie und Electrochemie, Berlin-Dahlem,
"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements". Sintesi dell'ammoniaca.
* 1919
The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section Non assegnato
Walther Hemann Nernst 1920
Walther Hemann Nernst (Germany, 25.6.1864 - 18.11.1941)
Germany, Berlin University,
"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry". Studi sulla termodinamica.
Frederick Soddy 1921
Frederick Soddy (Great Britain, 2.9.1877 - 22.9.1956)
Great Britain, Oxford University,
"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes". Chimica delle sostanze radioattive. Ricerche sugli isotopi.
Francis William Aston 1922
Francis William Aston (Great Britain, 1.9.1877 - 20.11.1945)
Great Britain, Cambridge University,
"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule". Scoperta di isotopi. Studi sulla spettrometria di massa.
Fritz Pregl 1923
Fritz Pregl (Austria, 3.9.1869 - 13.12.1930)
Austria, Graz University,
"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances". Microanalisi dei composti organici.
* 1924
The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section Non assegnato
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy 1925
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (Vienna, Austria, 1.4.1865 - 29.9.1929)
Germany, Goettingen University,
"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry". Studi sulla chimica dello stato colloidale.
Theodor Svedberg 1926
Theodor Svedberg (Sweden, 30.8.1884 - 26.2.1971)
Sweden, Uppsala University,
"for his work on disperse systems". Studi sui sistemi a dispersione colloidale e sull'ultracentrifuga.
Heinrich Otto Wieland 1927
Heinrich Otto Wieland (Germany, 4.6.1877 - 5.8.1957)
Germany, Munich University,
"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances". Struttura degli acidi biliari.
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus 1928
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (Germany, 25.12.1876 - 9.6.1959)
Germany, Goettingen University,
"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins". Studi sugli steroli e loro relazioni con le vitamine (vitamina D)
Sir Arthur Harden 1929
The Prize was divided equally between:
Sir Arthur Harden (Great Britain, 12.10.1861 - 17.6.1940)
Great Britain, London University, Studio sulla fermentazione degli zuccheri e sull'attività degli enzimi.
  and
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (Augsburg, Germany, 15.2.1873 - 6.11.1964)
Sweden, Stockholm University,
"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes". Studio sulla fermentazione degli zuccheri e sull'attività degli enzimi.
Hans Fischer 1930
Hans Fischer (Germany, 27.7.1881 - 31.3.1945)
Germany, Technische Hochschule (Institute of Technology), Munich,
"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin". Studi sui pigmenti ematici e su quelli delle piante.
Carl Bosch 1931
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Carl Bosch (Germany, 27.8.1874 - 26.4.1940)
Germany, Heidelberg University and I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G., Heidelberg, Sviluppo di processi chimici ad alta pressione.
  and
Friedrich Bergius Friedrich Bergius (Germany, 11.10.1884 - 30.3.1949)
Germany, Heidelberg University and I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Mannheim-Rheinau,
"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods". Sviluppo di processi chimici ad alta pressione.
Irving Langmuir 1932
Irving Langmuir (USA, 31.1.1881 - 16.8.1957)
USA, General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY,
"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry". Studi sui fenomeni chimici delle superfici.
* 1933
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section. Non assegnato
Harold Clayton Urey 1934
Harold Clayton Urey (USA, 29.4.1893 - 6.1.1981)
USA, Columbia University, New York, NY,
"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen". Scoperta del deuterio.
Frédéric Joliot 1935
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Frédéric Joliot (France, 19.3.1900 - 14.8.1958)
France, Institut du Radium, Paris, Sintesi di elementi radioattivi.
  and his wife
Irène Joliot-Curie Irène Joliot-Curie (France, 12.9.1897 - 17.3.1956)
France, Institut du Radium, Paris,
"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements". Sintesi di elementi radioattivi.
Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye 1936
Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye (Holland, 24.3.1884 - 2.11.1966)
Germany, Berlin University, and Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Physik, Berlin-Dahlem,
"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases". Studi sul momento dipolare e sulla diffrazione dei raggi X.
Sir Walter Norman Haworth 1937
The Prize was divided equally between:
Sir Walter Norman Haworth (Great Britain, 19.3.1883 - 19.3.1950)
Great Britain, Birmingham University,
"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C". Studi sui carboidrati e sulla vitamina C.
  and
Paul Karrer Paul Karrer (Switzerland, 21.4.1889 - 18.6.1971)
Switzerland, Zürich University,
"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2". Studi sui carotenoidi, sulla flavina e sulle vitamine A e B2.
Richard Kuhn 1938
Richard Kuhn (Vienna, Austria, 3.12.1900 - 31.7.1967)
Germany, Heidelberg University and Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg,
"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins". Studi sui carotenoidi e sulle vitamine.
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt 1939
The Prize was divided equally between:
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (Germany, 24.3.1903 - 18.1.1995)
Germany, Berlin University and Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Biochemie, Berlin-Dahlem,
"for his work on sex hormones". Studi sugli ormoni sessuali
  and
Leopold Ruzicka 1939
Leopold Ruzicka (Vukovar, then Austria-Hungary, 13.9.1887 - 26.9.1976)
Switzerland, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule, (Federal Institute of Technology), Zürich,
"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes". Studi sui polimerei e sui terpeni.
* 1940
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section. Non assegnato
* 1941
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section. Non assegnato
* 1942
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section. Non assegnato
George de Hevesy 1943
George de Hevesy (Hungary, 1.8.1885 - 5.7.1966)
Sweden, Stockholm University,
"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes". Applicazione di isotopi come indicatori in processi industriali.
Otto Hahn 1944
Otto Hahn (Germany, 8.3.1879 - 28.7.1968)
Germany, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut, (now Max-Planck Institut) für Chemie, Berlin-Dahlem,
"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei". Scoperta della fissione nucleare.
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen 1945
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (Finland, 15.1.1895 - 11.11.1973)
Finland, Helsinki University,
"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method". Scoperte nel campo della chimica degli alimenti e sulla loro conservazione.
James Batcheller Sumner 1946
The Prize was divided, one half being awarded to:
James Batcheller Sumner (USA, 19.11.1887 - 12.8.1955)
USA, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY,
"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized". Studi su metodi per la cristallizzazione di enzimi.
  the other half jointly to:
John Howard Northrop John Howard Northrop (USA, 5.7.1891 - 27.5.1987)
USA, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, Princeton, NJ, Preparazione di enzimi e proteine virali.
  and
Wendell M. Stanley Wendell M. Stanley (USA, 16.8.1904 - 15.6.1971)
USA, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, Princeton, NJ,
"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form". Preparazione di enzimi e proteine virali.
Sir Robert Robinson 1947
Sir Robert Robinson (Great Britain, 13.9.1886 - 8.2.1975)
Great Britain, Oxford University,
"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids". Studi sugli alcaloidi.
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius 1948
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (Sweden, 10.8.1902 - 29.10.1971)
Sweden, Uppsala University,
"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins". Studi sui metodi di elettroforesi e scoperta di proteine del siero.
William Francis Giauque 1949
William Francis Giauque (USA, 12.5.1895 - 28.3.1982)
USA, University of California, Berkeley, CA,
"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures". Studi sulla chimica e la termodinamica alle basse temperature.
Otto Paul Hermann Diels 1950
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Otto Paul Hermann Diels (Germany, 23.1.1876 - 7.3.1954)
Germany, Kiel University, Scoperte nella chimica degli elementi transuranici.
  and
Kurt Alder Kurt Alder (Germany, 10.7.1902 - 20.6.1958)
Germany, Cologne University,
"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis". Scoperte nella chimica degli elementi transuranici.
Edwin M. McMillan 1951
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Edwin M. McMillan (USA, *18.9.1907 - +1991)
USA, University of California, Berkeley, CA, Scoperte nella chimica degli elementi transuranici.
  and
Glenn Theodore Seaborg 1951 Glenn Theodore Seaborg (USA, *19.4.1912)
USA, University of California, Berkeley, CA,
"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements".Scoperte nella chimica degli elementi transuranici.
Archer John Porter Martin 1952
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Archer John Porter Martin (Great Britain, *1.3.1910)
Great Britain, National Institute for Medical Research, London, Studi sulla cromatografia.Archer J. P. Martin
Richard Laurence Millington Synge Richard Laurence Millington Synge (Great Britain, 28.10.1914 - 18.8.1994)
Great Britain, Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn (Scotland),
"for their invention of partition chromatography". Studi sulla cromatografia.Richard L. M. Synge
Hermann Staudinger 1953
Hermann Staudinger (Germany, 23.3.1881 - 8.9.1965)
Germany, University of Freiburg im Breisgau and Staatliches Institut für makromolekulare Chemie (State Research Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry), Freiburg in Br.,
"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry". Scoperte nel campo della chimica delle macromolecole.Hermann Staudinger
Linus Carl Pauling 1954
Linus Carl Pauling (USA, 28.2.1901 - 19.8.1994)
USA, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA,
"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances". Studi sulla natura del legame chimico e sulla struttura delle proteine.Linus Carl Pauling
Vincent du Vigneaud 1955
Vincent du Vigneaud (USA, 18.5.1901 - 11.12.1978)
USA, Cornell University, New York, NY,
"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone". Sintesi di un ormone polipeptidico.Vincent du Vigneaud
ir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood 1956
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood (Great Britain, 19.6.1897 - 9.10.1967)
Great Britain, Oxford University, Studi sui meccanismi delle delle reazioni chimiche.Sir Cyril N. Hinshelwood
  and
Nikolai Nikolajevich Semjonow Nikolai Nikolajevich Semjonow (Soviet Union, 15.4.1896 - 25.9.1986)
USSR, Institute for Chemical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow,
"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions". Studi sui meccanismi delle delle reazioni chimiche.Nikolai N. Semjonow
Sir Alexander R. Todd 1957
Sir Alexander R. Todd (Great Britain, *2.7.1907)
Great Britain, Cambridge University,
"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes". Studi sui nucleotidi e sui loro coenzimi.Sir Alexander R. Todd
Frederick Sanger 1958
Frederick Sanger (Great Britain, *13.8.1918)
Great Britain, Cambridge University,
"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin". Studi sulla struttura delle proteine.Frederick Sanger
Jaroslav Heyrovský 1959
Jaroslav Heyrovský (Czechoslovakia, 20.12.1890 - 27.3.1967)
Czechoslovakia, Polarographic Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Science, Prague,
"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis". Studi sulla polarografia.Jaroslav Heyrovský
Willard Frank Libby 1960
Willard Frank Libby (USA, 17.12.1908 - 8.9.1980)
USA, University of California, Los Angeles, CA,
"for his method to use carbo 14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science". Applicazione del metodo del carbonio-14 nella radiodatazione.Willard F. Libby
Melvin Calvin 1961
Melvin Calvin (USA, *7.4.1911 - +1997)
USA, University of California, Berkeley, CA,
"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants". Studi sulla fotosintesi.Melvin Calvin
Max Ferdinand Perutz 1962
The Prize was divided equally between:
Max Ferdinand Perutz (Vienna, Austria, *19.5.1914)
Great Britain, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, Studi sulla struttura delle proteine globulari.Max Ferdinand Perutz
  and
Sir John Cowdery Kendrew Sir John Cowdery Kendrew (Great Britain, *24.3.1917 - +1997)
Great Britain, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge,
"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins". Studi sulla struttura delle proteine globulari.John Cowdery Kendrew
Karl Ziegler 1963 The Prize was divided equally between:
Karl Ziegler (Germany, 26.11.1898 - 11.8.1973)
Germany, Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung (Max-Planck-Institute for Carbon Research), Mülheim/Ruhr Chimica e tecnologia dei polimeri.Karl Ziegler
  and
Giulio Natta Giulio Natta (Italy, 26.2.1903 - 2.5.1979)
Italy, Institute of Technology, Milan,
"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers". Chimica e tecnologia dei polimeri.Giulio Natta
Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin 1964
Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin (Great Britain, *12.5.1910 - +1994)
Great Britain, Royal Society, Oxford University, Oxford,
"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances". Determinazione della struttura di sostanze biologiche per mezzo di raggi X.
Robert Burns Woodward 1965
Robert Burns Woodward (USA, 10.4.1917 - 8.7.1979)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis". Sintesi di prodotti naturali.
Robert S. Mulliken 1966
Robert S. Mulliken (USA, 7.6.1896 - 31.10.1986)
USA, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL,
"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method". Studi sulla struttura elettronica e sul legame chimico.
Manfred Eigen 1967
The Prize was divided, one half being awarded to:
Manfred Eigen (Germany, *9.5.1927)
Federal Republic of Germany, Max-Planck-Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Goettingen, Studi sulle reazioni chimiche superveloci.
  and the other half jointly to:
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish 1967 Ronald George Wreyford Norrish (Great Britain, 9.11.1897 - 7.6.1978)
Great Britain, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Cambridge,Studi sulle reazioni chimiche superveloci.
  and
Lord George Porter 1967 Lord George Porter (Great Britain, *6.12.1920)
Great Britain, The Royal Institution, London,
"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy".Studi sulle reazioni chimiche superveloci.
Lars Onsager 1968
Lars Onsager (Oslo, Norway, 27.11.1903 - 5.10.1976)
USA, Yale University, New Haven, CT,
"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes". Studi sulla termodinamica dei processi irreversibili.
Sir Derek H. Barton 1969
The Prize was divided equally between:
Sir Derek H. Barton (Great Britain, *8.9.1918)
Great Britain, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, Sviluppo del concetto di struttura chimica.
  and
Odd Hassel 1969 Odd Hassel (Norway, 17.5.1897 - 13.5.1981)
Norway, Kjemisk Institutt, Oslo University, Oslo,
"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry".Sviluppo del concetto di struttura chimica.
Luis F. Leloir 1970
Luis F. Leloir (Argentina, *6.9.1906 - +1987)
Argentina, Institute for Biochemical Research, Buenos Aires,
"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates". Studi sulla biosintesi dei carboidrati.
Gerhard Herzberg 1971
Gerhard Herzberg (Hamburg, Germany, *25.12.1904 - +1999)
Canada, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa,
"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic stucture and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals". Studi sulla struttura elettronica e sulla geometria molecolare dei radicali liberi.
Christian B. Anfinsen 1972
The Prize was divided, one half being awarded to:
Christian B. Anfinsen (USA, *26.3.1916 - +1995)
USA, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD,
"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"; Studi sulla ribonucleasi.
  and the other half jointly to:
Stanford Moore 1972 Stanford Moore (USA, 4.9.1913 - 23.8.1982)
USA, Rockefeller University, New York, NYStudi sul sito attivo della ribonucleasi.
  and
William H. Stein 1972 William H. Stein (USA, 25.6.1911 - 2.2.1980)
USA, Rockefeller University, New York, NY,
"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule".Studi sul sito attivo della ribonucleasi.
Ernst Otto Fischer 1973
The Prize was divided equally between:
Ernst Otto Fischer (Germany, *10.11.1918)
Federal Republic of Germany, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Chimica dei composti organometallici.
  and
Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson 1973 Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson (Great Britain, *14.7.1921 - +1996)
Great Britain, Imperial College, London,
"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds".Chimica dei composti organometallici.
Paul J. Flory 1974
Paul J. Flory (USA, 19.6.1910 - 9.9.1985)
USA, Stanford University, Stanford, CA,
"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules". Chimica-fisica delle macromolecole.
John Warcup Cornforth 1975
The Prize was divided equally between:
John Warcup Cornforth (Great Britain, *7.9.1917)
Great Britain, University of Sussex, Brighton,
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"; Stereochimica delle reazioni enzimatiche.
  and
Vladimir Prelog 1975 Vladimir Prelog (Sarajevo then Yugoslavia, *23.7.1906 - +1998)
Switzerland, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich,
"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions".Studi sulla stereochimica delle molecole e delle reazioni organiche.
William N. Lipscomb 1976
William N. Lipscomb (USA, *9.12.1919)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding". Studi sulla struttura dei borani.
Ilya Prigogine 1977
Ilya Prigogine (Moscow, Russia, *25.1.1917)
Belgium, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussells (University of Texas, USA),
"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures". Studi sulla termodinamica dei processi irreversibili.
Peter D. Mitchell 1978
Peter D. Mitchell (Great Britain, 29.9.1920 - +1992)
Great Britain, Glynn Research Laboratories, Bodmin,
"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory". Sviluppo della teoria chemiosmotica.
Herbert C. Brown 1979
The Prize was divided equally between:
Herbert C. Brown (London, Great Britain, *22.5.1912)
USA, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, Scoperta di composti organici di fosforo e boro.
  and
Georg Wittig 1979 Georg Wittig (Germany, 16.6.1897 - 26.8.1987)
Federal Republic of Germany, University of Heidelberg,
"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis".Scoperta di composti organici di fosforo e boro.
Paul Berg 1980
The Prize was divided, one half being awarded to:
Paul Berg (USA, *30.6.1926)
USA, Stanford University, Stanford, CA,
"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"; Studi sulla biochimica degli acidi nucleici, in particolare del DNA ibrido.
  e l'altra metà in unione con:
Walter Gilbert 1980 Walter Gilbert (USA, *21.3.1932)
USA, Biological Laboratories, Cambridge, MA,Determinazione delle sequenze di basi negli acidi nucleici.
  and
Frederick Sanger 1980 Frederick Sanger (Great Britain, 13.8.1918)
USA, Great Britain, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge,
"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids".Determinazione delle sequenze di basi negli acidi nucleici.
Kenichi Fukui 1981
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Kenichi Fukui (Japan, *4.10.1918 - +1998)
Japan, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Teorie sulle reazioni chimiche (teorie sugli orbitali esterni).
  and
Roald Hoffmann Roald Hoffmann (Zloczow, Poland, *18.7.1937)
USA, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY,
"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions". Teorie sulle reazioni chimiche (teorie sugli orbitali esterni).
Sir Aaron Klug 1982
Sir Aaron Klug (Lithuania, *11.8.1926)
Great Britain, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge,
"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes". Sviluppo di metodi cristallografici per la determinazione di strutture di proteine.
Henry Taube 1983
Henry Taube (Saskatoon, Canada, *30.11.1915)
USA, Stanford University, Stanford, CA,
"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes". Meccanismi di reazione con trasferimento di elettroni, in paricilare nei complessi metallici.
Robert Bruce Merrifield 1984
Robert Bruce Merrifield (USA, *15.7.1921)
USA, Rockefeller University, New York, NY,
"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix". Metodi per la perparazioen di peptidi e proteine.
Herbert A. Hauptman 1985
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Herbert A. Hauptman (USA, 14.2.1917)
USA, The Medical Foundation of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, Sviluppo di metodi per la determinazione delle strutture cristalline.
  and
Jerome Karle 1985 Jerome Karle (USA, 18.6.1918)
USA, US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC,
"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures".Sviluppo di metodi per la determinazione delle strutture cristalline.
Dudley R. Herschbach 1986
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Dudley R. Herschbach (USA, *18.6.1932)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, Dinamica di processi chimici elementari.
Yuan Tseh Lee 1986 Yuan Tseh Lee (Hsinchu, Taiwan, *29.11.1936)
USA, University of California, Berkeley, CA,Dinamica di processi chimici elementari.
  and
John C. Polanyi 1986 John C. Polanyi (Canada, *23.1.1929)
Canada, University of Toronto, Toronto,
"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes".Dinamica di processi chimici elementari.
Donald J. Cram 1987
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Donald J. Cram (USA, *22.4.1919)
USA, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, Sviluppo di modelli molecolari complessi.
Jean-Marie Lehn 1987 Jean-Marie Lehn (France, *30.9.1939)
France, Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, and Collège de France, Paris,Sviluppo di modelli molecolari complessi.
  and
Charles J. Pedersen 1987 Charles J. Pedersen (Fusan, Korea, as a Norwegian citizen, 3.10.1904 - 26.10.1989)
USA, Du Pont, Wilmington, DE,
"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity".Sviluppo di modelli molecolari complessi.
Johann Deisenhofer 1988
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Johann Deisenhofer (Germany, *30.9.1943)
Federal Republic of Germany, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry,
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, TX, Determinazione della struttura 3D in un centro di reazione di fotosintesi.
Robert Huber 1988 Robert Huber (Germany, *20.2.1937)
Federal Republic of Germany, Max-Planck-Institut fü Biochemie, Martinsried,Determinazione della struttura 3D in un centro di reazione di fotosintesi.
  and
Hartmut Michel 1988 Hartmut Michel (Germany, *18.7.1948)
Federal Republic of Germany, Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysik, Frankfurt/Main,
"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre".Determinazione della struttura 3D in un centro di reazione di fotosintesi.
Sidney Altman 1989
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Sidney Altman (Canada, *8.5.1939)
USA, Yale University, New Haven, CT, Scoperta delle proprietà catalitiche dell' RNA.
  and
Thomas Robert Cech 1989 Thomas Robert Cech (USA, *8.12.1947)
USA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO,
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA".Scoperta delle proprietà catalitiche dell' RNA.
Elias James Corey 1990
Elias James Corey (USA, *12.7.1928)
USA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,
"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis". Sviluppo di nuovi metodi per la sintesi di composti naturali complessi.
Richard Robert Ernst 1991
Richard Robert Ernst (Switzerland, *14.8.1933)
Switzerland, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich,
"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy". Sviluppo della risonanza magnetica nucleare (NMR). Richard Robert Ernst
Rudolph A. Marcus 1992
Rudolph A. Marcus (Canada, *21.7.1923)
USA, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA,
"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems". Teorie sul trasferimento di elettroni.
Kary Banks Mullis 1993
The Prize was awarded "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry", by one half to:
Kary Banks Mullis (USA, *1944)
USA, La Jolla, CA,
"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method", Scoperta della reazione a catena della polimerasi.
  and by the other half to:
Michael Smith 1993 Michael Smith (Blackpool, England, *26.4.1932)
Canada, University of British Columbia, Vancouver,
"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleiotide- based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies".Sviluppo della mutagenesi di un particolare sito.
George A. Olah 1994
George A. Olah (Budapest, Hungary, *1927)
USA, University of Southern California, CA,
"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry". Studi sui carbocationi.George A. Olah
Paul Crutzen 1995
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Paul Crutzen (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, *1933)
Germany, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Studi sulla decomposizione dell'ozono atmosferico.
Mario J. Molina 1995 Mario J. Molina (Mexico City, Mexico, *1943)
U.S.A, MIT, Cambridge, MA,Studi sulla decomposizione dell'ozono atmosferico.
  and
Sherwood F. Rowland 1995 Sherwood F. Rowland (USA, *1927)
USA, University of California, Irvine, CA,
"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone".Studi sulla decomposizione dell'ozono atmosferico.
Robert F. Curl, Jr. 1996
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Robert F. Curl, Jr. (USA, *1933)
USA, Rice University, Houston, Scoperta dei fullereni.
Sir Harold W. Kroto 1996 Sir Harold W. Kroto (Great Britain, *1939)
Great Britain, University of Sussex, Brighton,Scoperta dei fullereni.
  and
Richard E. Smalley
1996 Richard E. Smalley (USA, *1943)
USA, Rice University, Houston,
"for their discovery of fullerenes".Scoperta dei fullereni.
Paul D. Boyer 1997
The Prize was awarded by one half to:
Paul D. Boyer (USA, *1918)
USA, University of California, Los Angeles, Studi sui meccanismi enzimatici nella sitnesi di ATP.
John E. Walker 1997 John E. Walker (Great Britain, *1941)
Great Britain, Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge,
"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)",Studi sui meccanismi enzimatici nella sitnesi di ATP.
  and by the other half to
Jens C. Skou 1997 Jens C. Skou (Denmark, *1918)
Denmark, Aarhus University
"the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase".Studi sugli enzimi trasportatori di ioni.
Walter Kohn 1998
The Prize was awarded jointly to:
Walter Kohn (USA, *1923)
USA, University of California at Santa Barbara, Sviluppo delle teorie sulla densità funzionale.
  and
John A. Pople 1998 John A. Pople (USA, *1925)
USA, Northwestern University,
"to Walter Kohn for his development of the density-functional theory and to John Pople for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry". Sviluppo di metodi di calcolo nella chimica quantistica.
Ahmed H. Zewail 1999
Ahmed H. Zewail (Egypt, *1946)
USA, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy". Dimostrazione della possibilità di osservare il movimento degli atomi in una molecola durante una reazione mediante la tecnica del laser veloce; per gli studi degli stati di transizione di una reazione chimica con l'uso della spettroscopia a femtosecondi.Ahmed H. Zewail
  2000
Alan Heeger (USA, 1936)
Alan Mac Diarmid (USA, 1927)
Hideki Shirakawa (Giappone, 1936)
Sviluppo degli studi sui polimeri drogati conduttori, in particolare sul poliacetilene.
  2001
William S. Knowles (USA, 1917)
K. Barry Sharpless (USA, 1941)
Studi sulle reazioni di ossidazione catalizzate chiralmente.
 
 
Ryoji Noyori (Giappone, 1938)
Studi sulle reazioni di idrogenazione catalizzate chiralmente.
  2002
John B. Fenn (USA, 1917)
Koichi Tanaka (Giappone, 1959)
Sviluppo degli studi sulla spettrometria di massa di macromolecole biologiche.
 
Kurt Wüthrich (Svizzera, 1939)
Sviluppi della spettroscopia NMR nella determinazione della struttura tridimensionale di macromolecole biologiche in soluzione.
  2003
Peter Agre (USA, 1949)
Per le scoperte riguardo i canali nelle membrane cellulari e la scoperta dei canali acquei.
 
Roderick MacKinnon (USA, 1956)
Per gli studi sulla struttura e l'attività dei canali ionici.
  2004
Aaron Ciechanover(Israele 1947)
Avram Hershko (Israele, 1937
Irwin Rose(USA, 1926)
Per gli studi sul decadimento regolato delle proteine ubiquitarie.
2005
Robert H. Grubbs(USA 1942)
Richard Royce Schrock (USA 1945)
Yves Chauvin(Francia 1930)
Per lo sviluppo del metodo della metatesi nella sintesi organica
2006
Roger David Kornberg(USA 1947)
 
Per i suoi studi sulle basi molecolari della trascrizione eucariotica
2007
Gerhard Ertl(Germania 1936)
 
Per i suoi studi dei processi chimici sulle superfici solide
2008
Osamu Shimomura(USA/Giappone 1928)
Martin Chalfie (USA 1948)
Roger Y. Tsien(Francia 1952)
Per la scoperta della Proteina fluorescente verde (Gfp) utilizzata come marcatore medico
2009
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan(Regno Unito/India 1952)
Thomas A. Steitz (USA 1940)
Ada E. Yonath (Israele 1939)
Per gli studi sulla struttura e sulla funzione dei ribosomi
2010
Richard Heck(USA 1931)
Ei-ichi Negishi (USA/Giappone 1935)
Ada E. Yonath (Giappone 1930)
Per gli accoppiamenti incrociati catalizzati dal palladio nella sintesi organica


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